According to the definition given by Codex Alimentarius, HACCP is a system for identifying, evaluating and controlling the hazards of importance for food safety. HACCP is a management system in which food safety is considered through the analysis and control of biological, chemical and physical hazards from input raw materials, handling, production, distribution and consumption of the end product. The HACCP system consists of two basic components:
- HA and
HA stands for risk analysis, ie identification of the hazards at each stage of food prduction and assessment of their harmfulness to human health.
CCP (critical control points) represents production processes that can prevent or eliminate food safety risks or reduce their impact to an acceptable level. Simply, it’s possible to control them.
Hazard – Danger to health at a specific point in the food production process.
Analysis – Analysis of the risk of possible contamination of products at each point in the food production process.
Critical – Determining the critical point in the process for the health safety of the product.
Control – Control the critical point of the process.
Point – Points of the process of grocery production.
The basic goal of the HACCP concept is the production of safe food products. This method implies the production of health-correct foods by preventive action, not by consequential (inspection) activities. The HACCP system implies the establishment of the responsibility of all participants in the food supply chain for food safety.
HACCP is a flexible system, adapting to all types of products in every chain of the production, distribution and handling chain, from field to table. The branches of the food industry that require the HACCP system are:
- production, processing, packaging;
- storage, transport, distribution;
- preparation and distribution of food for the needs of hospitals, children’s institutions, hotels, restaurants;
- trade, retail and catering;
- organic food industry.
In order for the organization to successfully develop and implement the HACCP plan, it is necessary to define its framework (areas of application of the plan) and the objective (hazard analysis and identification of points where the risks of their occurrence are greatest and where they can be controlled, ie reduced or eliminated).
The precondition for quality definition of the framework and the HACCP plan goal are the following activities: 5 steps that the organization must implement:
- Training, and forming a team for HACCP;
- description of the product;
- determining the intended use of the product;
- creating a process flow diagram;
- verifying the process flow diagram.
The development and implementation of HACCP is implemented through 7 principles:
1. Risk analysis – identifies hazards that could be prevented in order to be eliminated or reduced to an acceptable level. Risks can be biological such as microbes, chemically such as toxins and physical ones such as metal fragments or glass;
2. Identification of critical control points – Processes are recorded, process diagrams are processed and control points are determined on them; points in food production – from raw materials through processing and dispatching, to consumer consumption – in which potential risks can be controlled: cooking, packaging, cooling and metal detection;
3. Establishing critical boundaries at critical points – Critical limits must be identified for the identified hazard. That is, it is necessary to mark a boundary that separates acceptable from an unacceptable;
4. Supervisory procedures – Establish a system of supervision of the given controls and / or laboratory testing to ensure their accuracy / validity;
5. Corrective Procedures – Procedures to be Applied if Control shows that critical control points are not under control;
6. Establishing the verification procedure – procedures for verifying the validity of the HACCP system. Introducing additional tests or parallel checking to ensure the proper operation of the main parts of the system according to the prescribed standards;
7. Document preparation – Documentation system that accurately records the details of all production operations: technological aspects (weather, temperature and microbiological parameters), and personal responsibility of workers.
Unlike traditional product inspection at the end of the production process, HACCP is an integrated preventive system that ensures food safety in every part of the production and distribution process, thereby contributing to reducing the health risks of the population. HACCP is not an independent program but is part of a larger control system that includes the implementation of universal procedures that are used to control general conditions and environment of production and contribute to product safety. Programs that need to be adopted, implemented and documented are:
- GMP – good manufacturing practice,
- SOP – standard operating procedures,
- SSOP – standard operating procedures for hygiene.
The benefits of using this system are: Reduces the occurrence of food-born diseases;
- Enables the fulfillment of the requirements of the legislation and more efficient inspection supervision;
- Increases the competitiveness of the company on the world market; enables the efficient introduction of new technologies and products;
- Better use of energy and water protection, careful selection of raw materials and controlled recycling of waste, contributes to cost savings and raises your competitiveness;
- Improving the quality of workplace and employee morale:
- Ecologically aware clients will deal with companies like yours, because it emphasizes its commitment to environmental protection
- Provides residents with health-safe food products;enables more effective and efficient operation of food businesses;
- Removes barriers to international trade;
- Increases profits.
Your financial burden is reduced due to reactive management strategies such as repairs, cleaning, paying penalties for law violations.
New opportunities for employment in the markets where ecological production is important.
The application of HACCP is compatible with the application of quality management systems, such as the ISO 9000 series standards.
Upon completion of the introduction, it is necessary to implement: continuous system maintenance and upgrading, continuous internal and external monitoring, system correction in changes in technological process or changes in raw materials and, finally, system certification.